The History of Dogs: From Wolves to Man’s Best Friend

History of Dogs: An image showing how dogs were domesticated.

Dogs have been human’s best friends for thousands of years. They are loyal companionsprotectors, and beloved family members. However, their existence raises many questions, such as what is the history of dogs?

How did dogs become so close to humans?

What makes them so different from other pets?

And more…

This article has all the answers you’re looking for. It explores the fascinating history of dogs, from their wild wolf ancestors to the modern-day breeds we now have.

Let’s dive into it!

Table of Contents

Origin of Dogs: How Did Wolves Become Dogs?

A chart showing the origin of dogs

As a dog enthusiast, you may have asked, “Where did dogs originate from?

Well, the history of dogs begins with the evolution of wolves, which occurred about 20,000 to 40,000 years ago.

As humans settled down and formed communities, they started interacting with these early dogs.

They followed human hunter-gatherers as they migrated worldwide, forming bonds based on mutual benefit.

Humans found that wolves could be helpful companions, protectors, and hunters.

And eventually started domesticating them.

Wolves, on the other hand, found that humans could provide them with food and shelter.

Dog Domestication: How Did Dogs Become Pets?

Dog domestication was a gradual process that took thousands of years.

Scientists suggest that the process began between 15,000 and 30,000 years ago.

They use archaeological evidence and DNA analysis to trace the history of dogs and their relationship with humans.

The first undisputed example of a domesticated dog is the Bonn-Oberkassel dog, which was buried alongside two humans about 14,220 years ago in Germany.

Archaeological evidence shows that the dog had different features than the wolves of that time. These include a shorter snout and smaller teeth.

The exact process of how wolves became dogs is still debated. However, there are two main hypotheses:


Self-domestication hypothesis suggests that some wolves gradually adapted to living near human settlements, scavenging their food and becoming less fearful and aggressive.

These wolves also developed traits such as floppy ears, curly tails, and spotted coats, which are signs of reduced stress hormones and increased social behavior.

Intentional Domestication

Intentional domestication theory suggests that humans actively selected traits in gray wolves, such as:

  • Obedience
  • Loyalty
  • Hunting ability

These traits made dogs more helpful to humans.

They also helped strengthen the bond between humans and canines.

The wolves also developed traits like:

  • Loyalty
  • Intelligence
  • Empathy

These characters increased communication and bonding with humans.

Humans started breeding more docile, cooperative, and helpful wolves for hunting, herding, or guarding.

Regardless of how it happened, the domestication of dogs was a major milestone in human history.

Dogs helped humans survive and thrive in harsh environments, providing companionship, protection, and assistance.

They also influenced human culture, religion, art, and language.

Ancient civilizations worshipped dogs as gods with supernatural qualities.

For instance, ancient Egyptians worshipped Anubis as the god of the dead, as it played a vital role in burial rites.

Egyptians also referred to it as ‘The Dog Who Swallows Millions’ and the ‘Master of Secrets.’

That’s due to its role as the guardian of cemeteries and the patron of embalmers.

The three-headed Greek mythology dog

Cerberus, the three-headed dog, helped guard the gates of hell at Styx in ancient Greece, stopping damned souls from escaping.

Other ancient civilizations, like the Romans, used dogs to symbolize courage or loyalty and considered them their favorite pets.

For example, the Malta dog was a beloved family member and played with kids.

Dogs in ancient China had a place on the emperors’ thrones.

They received royal treatment, lived in high-end suites, and slept on pillows.

As you can see, dog domestication started a long time ago.

They have constantly bred and evolved, resulting in various unique breeds tailored for different roles.

Evolution of Dogs: How Dogs Became Diverse

With over 300 recognized breeds, dogs are one of Earth’s most diverse mammal species.

Each breed has its unique:

  • Size
  • Shape
  • Appearance
  • Temperament
  • Personality
  • function

Some breeds are better suited for specific tasks than others.

For example, herding dogs are good at rounding up livestock, while hunting dogs are excellent at tracking and retrieving prey.

How dogs become so diverse depends on several factors that influence their evolution. These include:

1. Human Intervention

Humans have played a significant role in creating dogs that fulfill distinct societal needs or desires.

Through selective breeding, humans have accentuated certain instincts or traits evident from their earliest encounters with dogs.

Some dogs were bred to be better hunters, herders, or guardians. Others became more friendly, loyal, or companionable.

2. Natural Selection

Dogs that better adapted to their environment had a higher chance of survival and reproduction.

This means that dogs evolved differently depending on the climate, terrain, and resources available in different regions of the world.

For instance, some dogs developed thicker fur to cope with cold weather. Others developed longer legs to run faster in open spaces.

3. Genetic Mutation

Mutations are changes that occur in a dog’s DNA over time. These changes result in new traits or characteristics not present in the original dog population.

For example, a mutation may have resulted in a dog having a shorter or longer tail.

Some have a different coat color or texture or a more pronounced sense of smell or hearing.

Over time, these mutations became more common within specific dog populations, leading to the development of distinct breeds.

These three factors have contributed to the remarkable diversity of dogs today.

Dogs have evolved from gray wolves into various forms and functions that reflect their complex relationship with humans and their environment.

Roles of Dogs in Human Society

From hunting to companionship, dogs have played many different roles in human society throughout history.

Here are the functions of various dogs from ancient times to modern days:

Ancient Dogs

Dogs in ancient societies served as hunters, guardians, and even sacrifices to the gods.

Ancient Egyptians revered and worshipped dogs, with many mummified remains found in tombs.

People in Greece and Rome used dogs for hunting, guarding, and protecting homes and property.

Medieval Dogs

During the medieval period, dogs were mainly used as shepherds and guardians.

However, they began to serve other purposes.

For example, the Greyhound was bred for speed and used in hunting.

English mastiff dog

Humans also bred medieval dogs like the Mastiff for their large size and strength and used them for protection.

In fact, the dog helped protect London Bridge and livestock from wolves in Spain.

Newfoundland water rescue dog

The Newfoundland was and is still used for water rescue, while Saint Bernard helped search and rescue people lost in the Swiss Alps.

Modern Dogs

Modern dogs have been bred, from the tiny Chihuahua to the massive Great Dane, to fulfill a wide range of roles. These include:

  • Companionship
  • Protection
  • Herding
  • Hunting

They are also used in law enforcement, as therapy animals, and even in scientific research.

The Future of Dogs

Dogs will continue to play an essential role in human society for many years.

These pets are loyal, loving, trainable, and intelligent.

They can serve various tasks, such as hunting and providing protection.

The future of dogs is also likely to be shaped by technological advances and changes in human society.

One area of development is genetics, where scientists are exploring ways to modify dog DNA.

The goal is to reduce or eliminate specific health problems and to create new traits or characteristics.

There is also a growing interest in using dogs in fields like medicine and law enforcement.

These animals have incredible senses and can detect scents and sounds, making them valuable assets.

As society becomes more urbanized, the role of dogs slowly shifts from working animals to companion pets.

There is also a growing trend toward ethical breeding practices and the adoption of dogs from shelters and rescue organizations.

Soon, we may see more regulations and laws designed to protect dogs.

This includes increased public awareness of the importance of responsible dog ownership.

Final Words: History of Dogs

The history of dogs is a long and fascinating journey that spans thousands of years.

From their wild wolf ancestors to the modern-day breeds we know and love, dogs have played an essential role in human societies throughout history.

They have been and continue to be perfect hunters, guardians, and loyal companions.

Their intelligence, loyalty, and affection make them one of the most loved animals worldwide.

So, as you curl up with your furry friend, remember you are part of a long and rich history of the human-dog relationship.


Who Discovered Dogs?

Dogs are not a natural species discovered but a domesticated subspecies of the gray wolf that humans created.

However, scientists are still debating when, where, and how often dogs were domesticated from wolves. Possible locations include China, Egypt, India, Europe, and Africa.

What Was the First Dog in History?

Miacis is the first known canine ancestor, a small weasel-like mammal that lived about 60 million years ago.

It gave rise to Cynodictis, the first actual dog, about 30 to 40 million years ago.

Cynodictis then branched into various forms of canids, including foxes, jackals, and wolves.

The Bonn-Oberkassel dog is perhaps the most recent dog archaeologists discovered in Germany in 1914.

Genetic analysis estimates that this dog’s remains were about 14,000 years old, making it one of the oldest known domesticated dogs.

What Were the First Dog Breeds in History?

The first known dog breeds were the Saluki and the Basenji, which have existed for thousands of years.

Saluki is an ancient breed that originated in the Middle East and was used for hunting by nomadic tribes.

The Basenji is a small hunting dog that originated in Central Africa and is known for its unique yodel-like bark.

Why Dog Was the First Animal?

The dog was the first animal to be domesticated by humans due to their small size, social and cooperative nature, making them easier to keep.

They have an incredible ability to adapt to different environments and are helpful for various roles such as hunting, guarding, and companionship.

Dogs may have also domesticated themselves by scavenging human leftovers and becoming less fearful and more friendly.

How Old Are Dogs?

Dogs are estimated to be between 10,000 and 40,000 years old as a domesticated subspecies.

The exact age of dogs may vary depending on the methods and criteria used to trace their origins.

However, dogs as a biological group have a much longer history that dates back to the Paleocene epoch, about 60 million years ago.

Did Dogs Come from Wolves?

Yes, dogs descended from wolves and are still genetically similar.

Wolves and dogs belong to the same species (Canis lupus) and can interbreed.

However, dogs have undergone many changes in appearance, behavior, and physiology as a result of artificial selection by humans.

Who First Owned a Dog?

The earliest evidence of a close relationship between humans and dogs comes from German archaeological sites where scientists found dog bones buried with or near human remains. Some of these sites date back to more than 10,000 years ago.

When Did Dogs First Appear in History?

Dogs first appeared thousands of years ago as evidence of domesticated dogs has been found in archaeological sites dating around 15,000 years ago.

The exact timeline of dog domestication is still a topic of scientific debate.

However, dogs have been closely associated with humans for a long time.

Who Is the Most Famous Dog in History?

It is difficult to determine the most famous dog in history, as different puppies may be famous for various reasons and in different cultures.

However, some possible candidates include:

  • Laika: The first animal and dog to orbit the Earth in 1957 as part of the Soviet space program.
  • Balto: The lead dog that delivered life-saving serum to Nome, Alaska, during a diphtheria outbreak in 1925.
  • Rin Tin Tin: A German shepherd that starred in many movies and TV shows in the 1920s and 1930s.
  • Lassie: The legendary collie that became a symbol of loyalty and courage through various books, movies, and TV shows.
  • Hachiko: A Japanese Akita that waited for his owner at a train station every day for nine years after his owner’s death in 1925.
  • Snoopy: A beagle that is one of the main characters of the Peanuts comic strip created by Charles Schulz.
  • Toto: A cairn terrier that accompanied Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz movie in 1939.

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3 thoughts on “The History of Dogs: From Wolves to Man’s Best Friend”

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